|“||Many of my lovers were men.||”|
— H.G. Wells, "Buried"
Helena G. Wells is a Victorian-era genius inventor, former Warehouse apprentice, and 21st Century Warehouse agent. She is the main antagonist in Season 2, but afterwards becomes an ally, eventually separating from working at the Warehouse while keeping in touch with its agents. She currently functions under the alias of Emily Hannah Lake.
Assuming her publishing timeline parallels the historical H.G. Wells, her first literary work was published in 1888 and served as the basis for the popular novel, The Time Machine. As Wells' literary popularity grew, the man commonly thought of as "H.G. Wells" was in fact Helena's brother, lending his face and mustache for her stories. All stories published under the name of "H. G. Wells" were, however, based on and almost entirely Helena's ideas.
On Helena's first visit to the Warehouse, Caturanga asked her what she smelled while inside. Helena replied she was able to smell apples, which Caturanga explained was a sign that the Warehouse favored her.
Within the next month, she was one of the agents assigned to track down Jack the Ripper, using a combination of Harriet Tubman's Thimble to disguise herself as well as purple-tinted glasses to counteract Jack's lantern and ultimately take down the murderer with a shot from her tesla.
She invented a number of devices as an apprentice and agent, including the Imperceptor Vest, a grappler, a psychometric Time Machine, and an antigravity generator. In 1893, she met Nikola Tesla at the World's Fair and introduced him to Warehouse 12. She was later included in the invention of the tesla guns used by Warehouse agents. That same year, in conjunction with a scientist named James Eddington, Helena developed a Rocket that utilized Joshua's Trumpet, potentially capable of spaceflight.
It is also possible that at this time she studied the martial art of kenpō as part of or as an addition to her training as an agent, though it is never clarified if such studies occurred before or after her instatement as a Warehouse agent.
In 1899 (according to Reset canon), Helena's daughter Christina was murdered. Following the death of her daughter, Helena became obsessed with devising a way to alter the past in order to save Christina's life, and subsequently succeeded in creating a "time machine" capable of shifting the consciousness of one person into the body of another in a different time period. She then used the device to shift her mind into the body of her cousins' nanny, Sophie. She managed to fight off the men who killed her daughter, but failed to prevent Christina's death. After returning to her own body and time, she tracked down the men who murdered Christina and, presumably, tortured and killed them in reprisal.
With fandom consensus of a date sometime around 1900, she was bronzed at her own request and confined to the Bronze Sector of the Warehouse, immobile but still conscious (according to her Bronzer card, she was Bronzed May 2nd, 1914, with agent P. Saunderson either being the one to Bronze her, or simply acting as an escort). Several of her personal effects, including her ring, locket, and compact, were stored in the Escher Vault (her compact, and likely her other personal belongings, were collected and placed into the Vault August 13th, 1946 - this is likely either an error, or they were collected after the death of her brother Charles). The locket was revealed to contain a picture of her daughter.
In 2010, she was debronzed by Leena, who was under the control of James MacPherson via the Pearl of Wisdom. Wells and MacPherson successfully conspired to steal a case of antimatter from the particle physics laboratory at CERN in Switzerland, which allowed Helena to power the Imperceptor Vest and navigate the Escher Vault in order to retrieve her confiscated belongings. When she exited, she found MacPherson captured by Warehouse agents and killed him before he could reveal the nature of her plans, then used the Imperceptor Vest to escape from the Warehouse.
Helena then began sketching the designs for a new invention which she stated she had been mulling over during her time bronzed.
Not long after she ran off, Myka Bering and Claudia Donovan ran into Wells again while searching Tamalpais University for an artifact which seemed to be causing spontaneous combustion in wrestlers. She professed to be searching for the same artifact in an attempt to prove herself to still be "a good agent". With everything she held dear lost, including her child, she claimed the Warehouse was the only home she had. The fact that she saved both Myka's and Claudia's lives caused Myka to begin to question her distrust of Wells. After this incident, Helena slipped away, leaving Myka the grappler that she had invented and a note reading: "Keep it. You can owe me.".
She later resurfaced after the death of two government agents, and followed the Warehouse agents to Moscow where she rescued Artie from the son of his former Soviet contact, who was intent on killing him.
Some time in this de-bronzing timespan, Helena tracked down the location of the Corsican Vest to Fort Lauderdale, Florida and retrieved it for herself. She also acquired Primordial Tar from Pitch Lake in Trinidad and kept her possession of both artifacts a secret from the other agents as well as the Regents.
Based on her actions in Moscow and at Tamalpais University, and with the strong support of Myka, Helena was reinstated at Warehouse 13, though Artie staunchly opposed the decision. Shortly after, Rebecca St. Clair returned to the Warehouse to enlist the agents' aid in the search for an artifact, the one that she and Jack Secord had failed to locate when they blacked out for 22 hours and 19 minutes in 1961. Helena recognized the duration of the black-out as the length of time that her own Time Machine could send a mind through time, and brought the Machine out of storage, in order to send the minds of Agent Bering and Agent Lattimer into the bodies of Agent St. Clair and Agent Secord on 20 August 1961. After Pete and Myka's safe return, Artie grudgingly admitted that Helena had indeed performed well as an agent.
However, this would later be, in part, an act in order to play the "long game" as MacPherson had done. At some point post-reinstatement, so that the money trail would lead back to the Warehouse, Helena financed an Egypt excursion for two teenage boys, who would end up re-activating Warehouse 2 and would die as a result. Knowing that Warehouse 2 would be activated, she sent Kelly Hernandez Lizzie Borden's Compact to receive a few days later, perhaps an attempt to distract the other agents some time down the road. Helena was part of the team that was sent to shut down Warehouse 2, and played her part in traveling into the Warehouse well, "solving" one of the traps by using her grappler as a zip line. An experience she had not planned for was facing the memory of her daughter in the Medusa Face room, the aftermath which left her emotionally devastated and possibly solidified her ultimate plans.
Helena tesla'd Myka and Pete in the heart of Warehouse 2, perhaps assuming that they would find a way to escape the collapsing Warehouse, and made off with what would later be identified as the shaft from the Minoan Trident. Her destination after Egypt was Paris, France, where she took the lawyer to Christina's estate hostage and forced him to retrieve Christina's coffin for her before attempting to kill him with the Primordial Tar. Helena then flew to Casper, Wyoming to travel to Yellowstone National Park. As Artie and Myka would realize, Helena's plan was to use the Minoan Trident to re-activate the supervolcano under the Yellowstone Caldera, the ensuing eruption generating enough debris in the atmosphere to cause a rapid Ice Age and a possible reduction of the world's population to a mere 1000 people.
Artie and Myka confronted her at the caldera, where Artie attempted to shoot her and revealed her acquisition of the Corsican Vest as it wounded him instead. With Artie down for the count, Myka confronted Helena and asked why she insisted on using the Minoan Trident. Helena told her that she had found in her bronzed absence that humans had become worse than ever before, and that the Earth needed a break from them. Ultimately Myka was able to talk Helena down from striking the ground with the trident a third and final time by forcing Helena to make the choice of giving up her plans or shooting Myka in head since Helena would be responsible for her death either way.
Helena was subsequently taken into custody by the Regents and transported to an unknown facility that Warehouse agents were told little about (this location has been dubbed by many fans as Incarceron). Following Myka's departure from the Warehouse, her consciousness was transported in holographic form to the Bering and Sons book shop by Mrs. Frederic and was projected through an unnamed sphere in an attempt to convince Myka to return to the Warehouse. Helena told Myka not to blame herself and that hate, if bottled up long enough, can turn to fear. Myka then returned to the Warehouse.
Helena later returned, in holographic form, to assist the Warehouse 13 team in solving a case which she'd been involved with while working for Warehouse 12. While Helena was eager to help, both Artie and Pete were upset by the decision to allow her back into their confidence, but with Myka's fierce defense of her participation, Helena was eventually given the opportunity to save them. After the crisis was averted, Helena had managed to gain more respect from the Warehouse team, although they remained wary of her and didn't entirely trust her, especially Artie.
During the machinations of Walter Sykes to infiltrate the Warehouse, the Warehouse agents discovered a file named Atlas-66, a reference to Wells' place and year of birth (1866 at the Atlas House). This discovery led to a series of events that culminated with Myka and Pete meeting a schoolteacher from Cheyenne, WY named Emily Lake, who had no memory of either agent, yet seemed to be inhabiting Helena's body. Artie, Mrs. Frederic, and Jane Lattimer later explained that following her "arrest" by the Regents, Helena's mind and body were separated by Adwin Kosan sometime around June 6th, 2010 using the Janus Coin, an artifact, and that her mind was contained on its own in the unnamed sphere for easy access in holographic form. Her body was then given the new identity of Emily Hannah Lake, an English teacher.
After Emily Lake was kidnapped by Sykes, Myka, Pete, and Claudia explained to Helena what had occurred to her body. With the circumstances of her mind and body's separation, as well as the danger posed to the Warehouse looming, Helena insisted that the Janus Coin be destroyed before Sykes could re-merge her body with her consciousness. The other agents argued against her plan, notably Myka and Claudia, but ultimately an attempt was made to destroy the coin and Helena with it, though it was foiled by Sykes.
Helena was later brought back to physical form by Walter Sykes to help him open the back door to Warehouse 13 as part of his greater plan of revenge, and was forced under the power of Cecil B. DeMille's Riding Crop to solve the chess puzzle of the Ancient Regent Sanctum, causing the death of Tyler Struhl and the near-death of Myka. She was ultimately successful by remembering the advice of Caturanga and changing the rules of the game, instructing Myka to play an illegal move to win.
After Sykes was killed, the agents discovered he left a bomb powered by the House of Commons Masonry in the seat of his wheelchair, causing the Remati Shackle to trap them inside for the safety of those outside the Warehouse. In a last ditch effort to save Myka, Pete, and Artie, Helena created a barrier around them by diverting power from the Warehouse's defense barrier, ultimately sacrificing herself to save them. Her last words were, "I smell apples," as she smiled to Myka, a reference to her first visit to Warehouse 12, and possibly a gesture from the Warehouse (a fact supported by the Warehouse's gift of an apple to Artie at a later time).
In the events that followed the Warehouse's destruction, Helena was saved by Artie's use of Ferdinand Magellan's Astrolabe, though she was confused and suspicious of his omniscient knowledge of the events. In the fallout of the Astrolabe's usage, and with Artie's defense and partial reveal of her actions in the alternate timeline, Helena was considered for reinstatement as an agent (again). She did not know of her own death, as no one but Artie had any memory of the erased day.
During the search for Brother Adrian, Helena reappeared at the B&B to update Artie on his request for her to find the Silver Dagger. Although she mentioned having a few leads, she instead confronted Artie about suddenly knowing about Walter Sykes' wheelchair, and informed him of her deduction about his use of the Astrolabe, as well as sharing this information with Mrs. Frederic, much to Artie's dismay.
After Helena's divulgence of her suspicions about Artie's actions, she, Mrs. Frederic, and Leena confronted Artie, asking for the truth. Artie confessed to the act, and explained that he felt there was no choice due to the destruction of the Warehouse and its artifacts, including Pandora's Box, the loss of which caused all of the hope in the world to vanish. As well, he argued his lack of choice further by telling Mrs. Fredric and Helena of their respective deaths in the alternate timeline. Later, Mrs. Fredric removed the Astrolabe from the Dark Vault, gave it to Helena, and told her go into hiding with it, in case Artie should succumb to Brother Adrian's threats. Before Helena exited the Dark Vault, Mrs. Fredric warned her not to trust anyone.
In this time after being sent away, Helena entrusted the Astrolabe to the Brotherhood of the Black Diamond, and made the choice to leave the Warehouse, permanently. She settled in Boone, Wisconsin under the assumed name of her alter-ego of sorts, Emily Lake, and lied her way into work as a forensic scientist. While in Boone, she met a man named Nate at a cooking class, and they entered into a relationship together. Six months after their meeting Helena was living with Nate and his young daughter, Adelaide.
In her work as a forensic scientist, Helena noticed unusual happenings when processing a criminal, and recognized the possibility of artifact activity. She contacted Myka for the first time since she left and informed the Warehouse of her suspicions of an artifact.
Upon the arrival of Pete and Myka, Helena was hesitant to involve herself in any Warehouse activity, explaining to the agents her decision to "retire". She was also reluctant to let Nate or Adelaide know anything about the Warehouse or her past. It was Myka who once again convinced Helena to do the right thing and help them in their search, though it was also Myka who confronted Helena on her decision to leave and who pointed out the possibility that Helena was using Adelaide as a surrogate for Christina, as the girls would have been the same age. Helena became very defensive at the suggestion, and insisted Myka had crossed a line by even hinting at such a claim. Once Helena's façade of Emily Lake began to crumble throughout the course of the artifact hunt, however, she quickly made amends with Myka and agreed with her assessment.
Right as the artifact was snagged, she confessed to Adelaide that her name was Helena, and it can be assumed that at some point she revealed that information to Nate as well. She did not return to South Dakota with Pete and Myka, deciding, with the possibly hesitant support of Myka, to stay in Boone and attempt to continue a relationship with Nate.
Little is known of Helena's actions after Myka and Pete left her in Boone, but it is indicated that she kept in contact with the Warehouse agents as well as returning to inventing, as she helped Claudia and Steve retrieve an artifact from Artie's heart using a shrink ray of her own invention. Myka later mentions that Helena's relationship with Nate ended, and that she was dating a woman named Giselle.
Helena has stated that "many of [her] lovers were men", indicating that she is bisexual.
Her colleague, William Wolcott, once asked if there wasn't "a man in London [she hadn't] charmed," to which she replied, "Oscar Wilde, and it's not for lacking of trying," indicating she experienced multiple relationships in her adult life. A known lover was her Warehouse 12 colleague Vincent Crowley, though the relationship ended when Vincent was destroyed by Joshua's trumpet.
Though Christina is Helena's daughter, the identity of her father is never mentioned or referenced, leaving unanswered questions on the nature of the relationship Helena might have had with him, or if such a lack of information indicates Christina might have a biological parent or parents other than Helena and the unmentioned father.
- While never canonized in the series, both Jaime Murray and Joanne Kelly have stated on several occasions that they intended for the relationship between Helena and Myka to be a romantic one, and that the subtext between them was intentional. This was most notably discussed at length in an interview with the lesbian-interest website AfterEllen.
Notable On-Screen InteractionsEdit
In "For The Team", just as Helena and Myka are to be run over by a car, Helena pulls out her grappling hook and pulls Myka to safety, and Myka agrees to work with Helena only if it is on Myka's terms. Helena comes up with a solution to saving Claudia's life from the effects of Godfrid's Spoon, leading Myka to a realization that people can change from their past ways.
In "Vendetta", Helena reveals to Myka the true cause behind her bronzing, a story both personal and previously unheard. She later recommends Helena's reinstatement as an agent, despite the repercussions it might have on her and Artie's relationship, as he strongly disapproves of Helena.
In "Reset", it is only Myka who is able to get through to Helena as she attempts to destroy the world with the Minoan Trident. Myka forces Helena to place a gun to her head, and asks her to kill her, because either through the gun or with the trident Helena would kill Myka. Helena relents, unable to bring herself to harm Myka, and surrenders. The events of this episode lead to Myka's resignation as a Warehouse agent, with the realization that her relationship with Helena compromised the safety of the warehouse and the world.
In "The New Guy", Pete and Mrs. Frederic are unsuccessful in persuading Myka to return to the Warehouse. The only person able to convince Myka is Helena, brought to Bering & Sons bookstore as a holographic projection.
In "3... 2... 1", while lending assistance to a case, Helena shares her regret over her past actions.
Helena: “We did make a good team, didn’t we?”
Myka: “We did... I just wish you would have realized that sooner.”
Helena: “So do I.”
In Emily Lake/Stand, Myka appears in both the friends, family and lovers sequences of memories as her memory is transferred onto the Janus Coin. With limited options to stop Sykes' plan to take down Warehouse 13, Pete and Helena agree to end Helena's life, but Myka refuses to comply.
Helena: “How do you say goodbye to the one person who knows you better than anyone else?” Myka: “I wish I knew.”
Sykes utilizes Helena's affection for Myka, putting Myka's life in danger to force Helena to solve the chess puzzle in the Ancient Regent Sanctum. Despite the events of Reset, Myka puts her life and trust in Helena's hands, calming her by saying "I am not going to die... because you are going to save my life". The seasons ends with Helena sacrificing her own life to save Myka, Pete and Artie. The final moment shared before the Warehouse is destroyed is between Myka and Helena. Helena mouths thank you to Myka, and Myka closes her eyes and holds onto Helena's locket around her neck as the Warehouse explodes, refusing to watch Helena die.
In A New Hope, Myka mentions losing people, "even people they love". This is believed by many to be a reference to the death of Helena.
In Instinct, Myka is visibly upset that Helena is somewhat 'living a lie' with Adelaide and Nate, accusing Helena of emotionally latching onto Adelaide (Nate's young daughter at around Christina's age) as a surrogate for her daughter. When Helena panics when Adelaide is put in danger, the normally collected Myka risks both the artifact and herself in a risky rescue attempt, alone and with no back-up. They part on good terms, with a tentative plan to meet for coffee.
Helena: "Maybe just... coffee, next time?"
Myka: "Or save the world. See what happens..."
In the episode Instinct, Pete and Myka discover that Helena is dating a man named Nate. Nate and Helena met in a cooking class and six months later, Helena moved in with him and his daughter, Adelaide. Myka comments that Helena may have been attracted to Nate because he had a little girl much like Helena's deceased daughter, Christina.
Nate knew Helena by her false identity, Emily Lake, but when she became involved with Pete and Myka's case in her workplace, Nate began to suspect that there was something she wasn't telling him. It is unknown whether or not Helena ever revealed her true identity to Nate, although she did tell Adelaide that her name was Helena. This suggests she may have told Nate as well.
In Endless, in response to Pete's reference to Helena and Nate's relationship, Myka mentions that they had broken up.
In Endless, Myka reveals that Helena is dating a woman named Giselle.
Helena held a great love of literature, indicated by both her prolific writings and her request to retain that love when her body and mind were separated by the Janus Coin. She seemed to have the knowledge of a few languages, some now-dead, as referenced by her recognition of the Demotic phrase Mrs. Frederic spoke with the reactivation of Warehouse 2.
During her time at Warehouse 12 she told her then-teacher Caturanga that she despised guns and refused to carry or use one as a Warehouse agent, insisting that "there is always an alternative". She was never seen carrying a gun, preferring to use her personalized green-bolt tesla or kenpō to neutralize threats. She studied kenpō, and was proficient enough to fight off at least 2 full-grown men in the body of Sophie during her "time travel". As well, Myka remarks to Pete that "H.G. knows kenpō; if H.G. wanted to hurt you, you'd be lying in a puddle of your own blood now".
Helena's physical presence and tone of voice oftentimes carried a seductive or flirtatious air, though occasionally such an attitude was a tool used to distract or manipulate. Examples include her first interaction with Pete, arguably her interactions with MacPherson, the exchange with Claudia over the dropped glass of water, her interactions with Myka at Tamalpais University's trophy room prior to Myka's choke-hold, her distraction of the wrestling coach at said university, and the exchange between her and Myka following Helena's rescue of Myka via grappler.
Timeline Discrepancies Edit
- In "3... 2... 1", Helena states that her daughter's death had occurred 2 years prior to her present date, 1893, making Christina's death occur in 1891, however, in "Stand", Christina's tomb clearly reads "Here lies Christina Wells, Born May 16, 1891, Died July 14, 1899".
- According to "Endless", Helena had only been apprenticed at the Warehouse for a month when she was involved in the artifact retrieval from Jack the Ripper, making her introduction to the Warehouse centered around the year 1889.
- However, if her literary career was intended to follow the historical H.G. Wells, then Caturanga could not have been as impressed as he stated with her books, as "H.G. Wells" had not published any particularly popular work yet.
- Though not canonical on-screen, it has been stated that her middle name is George, making her full name Helena George Wells.
- According to Helena's "Emily Lake" driver's license:
- The license was issued on June 15th, 2010, indicating her new identity might have been created around the same time.
- As Emily, Helena lived on 2781 Lincoln Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 82001 (as seen in "Emily Lake").
- "Emily Lake" was born March 30th, 1974.
- Helena's height as Emily is listed as 5'5", with a weight of 117 lbs, and Brown eyes.
- She is authorized to drive Class "B" vehicles: those "with a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 or more pounds or any such vehicle towing a vehicle which does not have a gross vehicle weight rating in excess of 10,000 pounds" (such as light trucks and light combination vehicles).
- She is permitted to drive Class "X" vehicles: those "designed to transport any liquid or gaseous materials within a tank or tanks" (known as tank vehicles), and vehicles transporting hazardous materials (known as hazmat vehicles, such as fire trucks and certain emergency response vehicles).
- Under restriction code "X", she is deemed unable to operate a vehicle with a manual transmission, and is only permitted to drive those with automatic transmissions.
|1. "Pilot":||Absent||7. "Implosion":||Absent|
|2. "Resonance":||Absent||8. "Duped":||Absent|
|3. "Magnetism":||Absent||9. "Regrets":||Absent|
|4. "Claudia":||Absent||10. "Breakdown":||Absent|
|5. "Elements":||Absent||11. "Nevermore":||Absent|
|6. "Burnout":||Absent||12. "MacPherson":||Appears|
|1. "Time Will Tell":||Debut||7. "For The Team":||Appears|
|2. "Mild Mannered":||Absent||8. "Merge With Caution":||Absent|
|3. "Beyond Our Control":||Absent||9. "Vendetta":||Appears|
|4. "Age Before Beauty":||Absent||10. "Where and When":||Appears|
|5. "13.1":||Absent||11. "Buried":||Appears|
|6. "Around the Bend":||Absent||12. "Reset":||Appears|
|13. "Secret Santa":||Absent|
|1. "The New Guy":||Appears||7. "Past Imperfect":||Absent|
|2. "Trials":||Absent||8. "The 40th Floor":||Absent|
|3. "Love Sick":||Absent||9. "Shadows":||Absent|
|4. "Queen For A Day":||Absent||10. "Insatiable":||Absent|
|5. "3... 2... 1":||Appears||11. "Emily Lake":||Appears|
|6. "Don't Hate The Player":||Absent||12. "Stand":||Appears|
|13. "The Greatest Gift":||Mentioned|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 https://warehouse13.wikia.com/wiki/File:Briggs_Emily_Lake_File.png
- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 Emily Lake
- ↑ Parrinder, Patrick (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 "Time Will Tell"
- ↑ The Time Machine via Wikipedia
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 "3... 2... 1"
- ↑ "Reset"
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 "Endless"
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 "Stand"
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 "For The Team"
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 "Where and When"
- ↑ https://twitter.com/Bumpynight/status/744023676467699714
- ↑ https://warehouse13.wikia.com/wiki/File:Wells_Compact_Escher_Card.png
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 "MacPherson"
- ↑ "Vendetta"
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 "Buried"
- ↑ "The New Guy"
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 "A New Hope"
- ↑ "Endless Wonder"
- ↑ "Second Chance"
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 "Instinct"
- ↑ http://io9.com/5864702/warehouse-13s-joanne-kelly-i-would-love-to-see-hg-wells-and-myka-get-together
- ↑ http://www.afterellen.com/jaime-murray-on-her-many-lesbian-roles-and-fans/01/2013/
- ↑ http://www.afterellen.com/exclusive-jaime-murray-and-joanne-kelly-talk-warehouse-13-bering-and-wells-and-nerdsbians/04/2013/
- ↑ Jaime Murray (6 June 2013). "Tweet Number 342499307993313280". https://twitter.com/MsJaimeMurray/status/342499307993313280. Retrieved on 18 June 2014. "George RT @jillaustein @womenofdefiance Helena? What's the middle name?"
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 http://www.dot.state.wy.us/home/driver_license_records/License-Commercial/commercial_testing/cdl-class-information.html
- ↑ http://www.dmvnv.com/pdfforms/restriction_codes.pdf